Sabtu, 06 April 2013

 
IDIOM

     Idiom adalah suatu ungkapan (seperti istilah atau frase) yang maknanya tak dapat diturunkan dari definisi langsung dan penyusunan bagian-bagiannya, melainkan merupakan suatu makna tak langsung yang hanya dikenal melalui penggunaan umum. Dalam linguistik, idiom umumnya dianggap merupakan gaya bahasa yang bertentangan dengan prinsip penyusunan (principle of compositionality), walaupun masih terjadi perdebatan mengenai hal tersebut.
         Idiom dapat membingungkan orang yang belum terbiasa dengannya. Orang-orang yang belajar suatu bahasa baru harus mempelajari ungkapan idiom bahasa tersebut sebagaimana mereka mempelajari kosa kata lain dalam bahasa itu. Pada kenyataannya, banyak kata dalam bahasa alami yang berasal sebagai idiom tapi telah terasimilasi baik sehingga justru kehilangan makna langsungnya.

*as usual – seperti biasa
*put off – menunda
*turn on – menyalakan
*arm in arm – bergandengan (tangan)
*on purpose – sengaja
*keep dark – merahasiakan
*by the way – ngomong-ngomong
*keep dark – merahasiakan
*just about – hampir saja
*dish out – membagikan
*Let’s check these out…
*Look out : hati-hati/awas/waspada
*Cross out : mencoret
*point out : menunjukkan
*break out : menyebar secara luas dan tiba-tiba
*give a hand : menolong/membantu
*good at : mahir/bagus dalam …
*face to face : berhadapan
*run after : mengejar
*keep in touch : tetap berhubungan atau berkomunikasi
*playing with fire : memainkan sesuatu yang berbahaya


Inilah beberapa English Idioms populer dan artinya dalam bahasa Indonesia:

*A walk in the park
Arti: Pekerjaan yang sangat mudah (seperti berjalan-jalan di taman).
*Achilles’ heel
Arti: Titik lemah seseorang (Achilles adalah tokoh legenda Yunani yang kebal senjata kecuali di bagian lututnya).
*Bark up the wrong tree
Arti: Marah/mengomel/memberi saran/berbicara/meminta kepada orang yang salah.
*Bed of Roses
Arti: Sesuatu yang mewah dan menyenangkan.english idioms 300×300 Popular English Idioms

Part I
*Better safe than sorry
Arti: Lebih baik bersiap-siap daripada menyesal (sedia payung sebelum hujan).
*Blessing in disguise
Arti: Berkah yang tersembunyi (semua hal ada hikmahnya).
*Breaking the ice
Arti: memecah ketegangan.
*Call it a day
Arti: Break atau istirahat sejenak (sampai hari ini berakhir) dari suatu pekerjaan.
*Can of Worms
Arti: Tindakan yang akan mengakibatkan masalah.
Contoh: “I dont want to open a can of worms” and “Cat got your tongue?”
Arti: Terdiam ketika seharusnya mengatakan sesuatu.
Contoh: “What’s the matter? Does cat got your tongue?”
*Come clean
Arti: Berterus terang, membuka kebohongan/rahasia, mengaku.
*Cut like (hot) knife through butter
Arti: Memotong sesuatu dengan mudah (seperti pisau panas menembus mentega).
*Easier said than done
Arti: Beribicara lebih mudah daripada mengerjakan, tidak semudah kelihatannya.
*Fish story
Arti: Cerita bohong.
*Good samaritan
Arti: orang yang murah hati, dermawan.
*Greek gift
Arti: Hadiah yang merugikan si penerima.
*“I call shotgun”
Arti: Duduk di sebelah sopir ketika hendak berpergian dengan mobil. Siapa yang lebih cepat mengatakan ini, dialah yang berhak.
*Jack of all trades
Arti: Orang yang serba bisa dalam usaha.
*Man proposes, God disposes
Arti: Manusia punya rencana, Tuhan yang menentukan.
*Mind over matter
Arti: Menyatakan kekuatan pikiran (willpower).
*More than meets the eye
Arti: Sesuatu yang memilik arti lebih daripada yang terlihat mata.
*Needle in a (hay)stack
Arti: Jarum dalam tumpukan jerami, mencari sesuatu yang hampir mustahil.
*Peeping Tom
Arti: Orang yang suka mengintip, suka mengamati seseorang.
*Pep talk
Arti: Kata-kata/pembicaraan yang bertujuan untuk menyemangati. Misal pelatih memberi “pep talk” ketika timnya sedang tertinggal dari lawan.
*Piece of cake/easy as pie
Arti: Pekerjaan yang sangat mudah, pie adalah istilah slang Amerika untuk “gampang”.
*Raincheck
Arti: Menunda sesuatu, menjadwalkan ulang, atau menghindari pertemuan secara halus.
Contoh: A: “Will you have lunch with me?” B:”I think I’m gonna have a raincheck” (bisa berarti kita makan siang bersama lain kali saja atau menolak secara halus).
*Saved by the bell
Arti: Selamat dari bahaya atau situasi buruk yang hampir saja terjadi (nyaris).
*Scapegoat
Arti: Kambing hitam. Orang yang disalahkan atas segala sesuatu yang terjadi.
*“Take a hike”
Arti: Mengusir seseorang.
Contoh: “Why don’t you take a hike or something”
*Take for granted
Arti: Sesuatu yang tidak dihargai, karena dianggap sudah selayaknya didapat.
Contoh: He taken Anne for granted (Dia tidak menghargai Anne, karena merasa bersama Anne bukan hal yang istimewa, tetapi adalah hal biasa yang sudah selayaknya ia peroleh).



(A)
A Bird In The Hand Is Worth Two In The Bush:
Having something that is certain is much better than taking a risk for more, because chances are you might lose everything.

A Blessing In Disguise:
Something good that isn’t recognized at first.

A Chip On Your Shoulder:
Being upset for something that happened in the past.

A Dime A Dozen:
Anything that is common and easy to get.

A Doubting Thomas:
A skeptic who needs physical or personal evidence in order to believe something.

A Drop in the Bucket:
A very small part of something big or whole.

A Fool And His Money Are Easily Parted:
It’s easy for a foolish person to lose his/her money.

A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand:
Everyone involved must unify and function together or it will not work out.

A Leopard Can’t Change His Spots:
You cannot change who you are.

A Penny Saved Is A Penny Earned:
By not spending money, you are saving money (little by little).

A Picture Paints a Thousand Words:
A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words.

A Piece of Cake:
A task that can be accomplished very easily.

A Slap on the Wrist:
A very mild punishment.

A Taste Of Your Own Medicine:
When you are mistreated the same way you mistreat others.

A Toss-Up:
A result that is still unclear and can go either way.

Actions Speak Louder Than Words:
It’s better to actually do something than just talk about it.

Add Fuel To The Fire:
Whenever something is done to make a bad situation even worse than it is.

Against The Clock:
Rushed and short on time.

All Bark And No Bite:
When someone is threatening and/or aggressive but not willing to engage in a fight.

All Greek to me:
Meaningless and incomprehensible like someone who cannot read, speak, or understand any of the Greek language would be.

All In The Same Boat:
When everyone is facing the same challenges.

An Arm And A Leg:
Very expensive. A large amount of money.

An Axe To Grind:
To have a dispute with someone.

Apple of My Eye:
Someone who is cherished above all others.

As High As A Kite:
Anything that is high up in the sky.

At The Drop Of A Hat:
Willing to do something immediately.

(B)
Back Seat Driver:
People who criticize from the sidelines, much like someone giving unwanted advice from the back seat of a vehicle to the driver.

Back To Square One:
Having to start all over again.

Back To The Drawing Board:
When an attempt fails and it’s time to start all over.

Baker’s Dozen:
Thirteen.

Barking Up The Wrong Tree:
A mistake made in something you are trying to achieve.

Beat A Dead Horse:
To force an issue that has already ended.

Beating Around The Bush:
Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.

Bend Over Backwards:
Do whatever it takes to help. Willing to do anything.

Between A Rock And A Hard Place:
Stuck between two very bad options.

Bite Off More Than You Can Chew:
To take on a task that is way to big.

Bite Your Tongue:
To avoid talking.

Blood Is Thicker Than Water:
The family bond is closer than anything else.

Blue Moon:
A rare event or occurance.

Break A Leg:
A superstitious way to say ‘good luck’ without saying ‘good luck’, but rather the opposite.

Buy A Lemon:
To purchase a vehicle that constantly gives problems or stops running after you drive it away.

(C)
Can’t Cut The Mustard :
Someone who isn’t adequate enough to compete or participate.

Cast Iron Stomach:
Someone who has no problems, complications or ill effects with eating anything or drinking anything.

Charley Horse:
Stiffness in the leg / A leg cramp.

Chew someone out:
Verbally scold someone.

Chip on his Shoulder:
Angry today about something that occured in the past.

Chow Down:
To eat.

Close but no Cigar:
To be very near and almost accomplish a goal, but fall short.

Cock and Bull Story:
An unbelievable tale.

Come Hell Or High Water:
Any difficult situation or obstacle.

krack Someone Up:
To make someone laugh.

Cross Your Fingers:
To hope that something happens the way you want it to.

Cry Over Spilt Milk:
When you complain about a loss from the past.

Cry Wolf:
Intentionally raise a false alarm.

Cup Of Joe:
A cup of coffee.

Curiosity Killed The Cat:
Being Inquisitive can lead you into a dangerous situation.

Cut to the Chase:
Leave out all the unnecessary details and just get to the point.

(D)
Dark Horse:
One who was previously unknown and is now prominent.

Dead Ringer:
100% identical. A duplicate.

Devil’s Advocate:
Someone who takes a position for the sake of argument without believing in that particular side of the arguement. It can also mean one who presents a counter argument for a position they do believe in, to another debater.

Dog Days of Summer:
The hottest days of the summer season.

Don’t count your chickens before they hatch:
Don’t rely on it until your sure of it.

Don’t Look A Gift Horse In The Mouth:
When someone gives you a gift, don’t be ungrateful.

Don’t Put All Your Eggs In One Basket:
Do not put all your resources in one possibility.

Doozy:
Something outstanding.

Down To The Wire:
Something that ends at the last minute or last few seconds.

Drastic Times Call For Drastic Measures:
When you are extremely desperate you need to take extremely desperate actions.

Drink like a fish:
To drink very heavily.

Drive someone up the wall:
To irritate and/or annoy very much.

Dropping Like Flies:
A large number of people either falling ill or dying.

Dry Run:
Rehearsal.

(E)
Eighty Six:
A certain item is no longer available. Or this idiom can also mean, to throw away.

Elvis has left the building:
The show has come to an end. It’s all over.

Ethnic Cleansing:
Killing of a certain ethnic or religious group on a massive scale.

Every Cloud Has A Silver Lining:
Be optomistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.

Everything But The Kitchen Sink:
Almost everything and anything has been included.

Excuse my French:
Please forgive me for cussing.

Cock and Bull Story:
An unbelievable tale.

Cock and Bull Story:
An unbelievable tale.

(F)
Feeding Frenzy:
An aggressive attack on someone by a group.

Field Day:
An enjoyable day or circumstance.

Finding Your Feet:
To become more comfortable in whatever you are doing.

Finger lickin’ good:
A very tasty food or meal.

Fixed In Your Ways:
Not willing or wanting to change from your normal way of doing something.

Flash In The Pan:
Something that shows potential or looks promising in the beginning but fails to deliver anything in the end.

Flea Market:
A swap meet. A place where people gather to buy and sell inexpensive goods.

Flesh and Blood:
This idiom can mean living material of which people are made of, or it can refer to someone’s family.

Flip The Bird:
To raise your middle finger at someone.

Foam at the Mouth:
To be enraged and show it.

Fools’ Gold:
Iron pyrites, a worthless rock that resembles real gold.

French Kiss:
An open mouth kiss where tongues touch.

From Rags To Riches:
To go from being very poor to being very wealthy.

Fuddy-duddy:
An old-fashioned and foolish type of person.

Full Monty:
This idiom can mean either, “the whole thing” or “completely nude”.

Funny Farm:
A mental institutional facility.

(G)
Get Down to Brass Tacks:
To become serious about something.

Get Over It:
To move beyond something that is bothering you.

Get Up On The Wrong Side Of The Bed:
Someone who is having a horrible day.

Get Your Walking Papers:
Get fired from a job.

Give Him The Slip:
To get away from. To escape.

Go Down Like A Lead Balloon:
To be received badly by an audience.

Go For Broke:
To gamble everything you have.

Go Out On A Limb:
Put yourself in a tough position in order to support someone/something.

Go The Extra Mile:
Going above and beyond whatever is required for the task at hand.

Good Samaritan:
Someone who helps others when they are in need, with no discussion for compensation, and no thought of a reward.

Graveyard Shift:
Working hours from about 12:00 am to 8:00 am. The time of the day when most other people are sleeping.

Great Minds Think Alike:
Intelligent people think like each other.

Green Room:
The waiting room, especially for those who are about to go on a tv or radio show.

Gut Feeling:
A personal intuition you get, especially when feel something may not be right.

(H)
Haste Makes Waste:
Quickly doing things results in a poor ending.

Hat Trick:
When one player scores three goals in the same hockey game. This idiom can also mean three scores in any other sport, such as 3 homeruns, 3 touchdowns, 3 soccer goals, etc.

Have an Axe to Grind:
To have a dispute with someone.

He Lost His Head:
Angry and overcome by emotions.

Head Over Heels:
Very excited and/or joyful, especially when in love.

Hell in a Handbasket:
Deteriorating and headed for complete disaster.

High Five:
Slapping palms above each others heads as celebration gesture.

High on the Hog:
Living in Luxury.

Hit The Books:
To study, especially for a test or exam.

Hit The Hay:
Go to bed or go to sleep.

Hit The Nail on the Head:
Do something exactly right or say something exactly right.

Hit The Sack:
Go to bed or go to sleep.

Hocus Pocus:
In general, a term used in magic or trickery.

Hold Your Horses:
Be patient.

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